Tuesday, September 23, 2008

Learn Bidayuh

amu Amu is long.Amu is to be prounced as "a-moo".
agah Agah is news. For example: "Agah Kena" is good news while "Agah Arap" is bad news. "Ani Agah" is what's the news and "Meting Agah" is no news.
anak Anak is a child. Example: "Ku-du anak mu" means how many child do you have. "Anak" is also being used in the registration of name, for example: John anak Gotot would means that John is the son of Gotot and Rita anak Losen would means that Rita is the daugther of Losen.

Bau Jagoi called a child as "onak". For example: "Ta-luh Onak" means three child.
anu Anu is a day.
anuk Anuk is a toddle or small size.
apuk (1) Apuk is a kitchen.

Biatah Penrissen called kitchen as "abuh".
apuk (2) Apuk is a species of bamboo with a lot of prickle. See also "Pisa", "Buru" and "Tering".
apui Apui is fire. The word "bra-pui" refers to cooking to Biatah Penrissen whereas Biatah Siburan called cooking as "tenuk/be-tenuk". Water is called pi-in.
aran Aran refers to road. For example: "Aran Batuh" is a gravel road whereas "Aran Pi-in" is a water way.
arap Arap is bad. For example: "Aran Arap" refers to the road is bad and "Agah Arap" is bad news.
arun Arun refers to home.
asi Asi is who. Example: "Asi nai apui" means who's making the fire.
asuh Asuh refers to smoke. A root word for "Brasuh" meaning smoking.
asung Asung is feeling or life. Example: "Asung ku gaun" means I am happy whereas "Meting asung" means no life or has passed away.
ata Ata is we or us or our. Example: "Ata man nok" means we eat and drink. "Ramin ata/ta" means our house.
ati Ati refers to this. Example: "Aran Ati" means this road and "Anu Ati" means today (this day).

babai Babai refers to a Bidayuh elderly. A grandfather or an old man (to certain extent, old wise man). A short name for a grandfather is "Bai". For example: "Bai Jack" means the old man is a grandfather of Jack. If the old man have many grandchildren, his shortname would be derived from the title "Bai" and the name of the eldest grandchildren.
babu Babu refers to rat, rodden or mouse.
babuk Babuk is a great grandfather.
baga Baga is big. For example: "Ramin baga" is a big house.

Bau Jagoi called big as "Ayuh"
bakur Bakur is a generic name for basket.
batuh Batuh is a generic name for pebble, gravel, stone or rock. "Batuh" can also refers to mile.
baruk Baruk is a traditional structure used for communal gathering and storage of "head" trophies.
barum Barum is either a blue or green. For example: "Barum dewun" is green leaf. "Barum rengit" is sky blue.
bayuh Bayuh refers to not yet or have not.
begu Begu refer to plenty or a lot.
Bidayuh
The Bidayuh number approximately 150,000 and form about 8% of Sarawak's population. They migrated from West Kalimantan much earlier than the Iban, but continuous warring with their more numerous and warlike neighbours left them confined to the 1st Division around Kuching.

The Bidayuh were also known as Land Dayaks, as they chose to build their settlements in the foothills of the mountain ranges for protection from enemies. Also former headhunters, they would keep their skull trophies in a separate head house, or baruk. Like the Iban, they are predominantly hill rice farmers, and they also grow cash crops such as pepper, cocoa and rubber, as well as fruit and vegetables for Kuching's markets.

The vast majority of Bidayuh are Christian, but some traditional rituals are still celebrated, including gawai dayak. Their traditional religion is highly animistic, but is nowadays only practised by a small minority of elderly people. The Bidayuh are rightly famous for their superb rattan basketry work and the beautiful costumes they use for ceremonial occasions.

Most Bidayuh have left their longhouses and nowadays live in kampungs (villages) in modern wood or brick houses, but some examples of Bidayuh longhouses still remain and can be visited on a day trip from Kuching.
bika-e Bika-e refers to quarrel or heated arguement.
bisa Bisa has two meanings. It can refer to wet or can. For example: "Bisa Nai" is can do while "Ubok Bisa" refers to wet hair. Alternative word to "Bisa Nai" is "Dapud Nai"
bisig Bisig refers to clean.
bori
(Bau Jagoi)
Bori is a house.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

The Biatah called a house as "Ramin" and a "Bori/Beri" is a hut.
brasuh Brasuh refers to smoking.
bre-muh Bre-muh is padi planting. The word "Bre-muh" originated from the word "emuh" which refers to a padi farm. Bidayuh usually plant padi on a hilly area, hence hill padi farming.
buda Buda is white.
buran Buran can be a moon or a month. For example: "Jewa Buran" is bright moonlight while "Taruh Buran" refers to three months.
burah Burah is awake (or awakening)
buru Buru is a species of soft bamboo mainly used for cooking or storage of water. See also "Apuk", "Pisa" and "Tering".
buruh Buruh refers to hair.
busing Busing is a cat.
butan Coconut is called butan.

dari A Bidayuh lad.
dapud Dapud is to meet or catch or found. For example: "Dapud dingan" means meet with a friend. "Dapud eken" means caught a fish. "Dapud duit" means found a coin. Alternatively, "Dapud" can also refers to can or possible. See "Bisa".
darum Darum refers to inside.
dayak Dayak refers to people. One of the word used to form the word "land DAYAK"
dayung A Bidayuh maiden.
de-an De-an refers to a tree branch or to inform. For example: "De-an Dien" refers to a branch of a durian tree. "De-an Agah" is to give news.
derud Derud (or darud) refers to a mountain. Senah refers to a hill.
deyuh Deyuh or Diyuh (dayuh) refers to land. One of the root word used to form the word "biDAYUH"
dewun Dewun refers to leaf.
dien Dien is local fruit or durian in Bahasa Malaysia. Scientific Name : Durio zibethinus Murr. The durian is a tall tree towering as high as 40m in the jungle rainforest or in semi-orchard. Seed trees may take 8-10 years to fruit. The fruit is green to brown in colour, pendulous, round to oblong in shape and is completely covered with strong sharp thorns. It is a capsule which splits into five parts when ripe and each segment contains brown seeds covered with thick, firm, creamy, yellow pulp with an overpowering aroma. [ picture | more ]
diki Diki refers to where.
dingah Dingah is hear.
dingan Dingan is a friend. Alternative word for "Dingan" is "Jera".
duh Duh is not or don't. For example: "Duh Kena" means no good. "Duh Nai" means don't do.
dun Dun stands for name. For example: "Dun ku inuh Gotot" means My name is Gotot.

eken Eken is a fish.
emuh Emuh mainly refers to a padi farm. "Bre-muh" stands for padi farming.

gamar Gamar refers to picture.
Gawai Gawai Dayak is the major festival of not only the Bidayuh but the other indigenous peoples of Sarawak. It marks the traditional rice harvest and falls on 31st May and 1st June. During Gawai, many city and town dwellers return to their family longhouse or kampung. In the longhouse, women spend days preparing sumptuous banquets of traditional food, which is washed down with tuak (rice wine). Gawai Dayak is two days of singing, dancing and just letting go. Visitors are welcome during Gawai, and as well as having a wonderful time they will gain a good insight into the powerful ties that hold longhouse communities together in an era of rapid social change.

Elderly folks (those who are pagans) believe that the success of the harvest is controlled by the spirits of the padi. Thus rituals are held to appease the spirits at the beginning of the planting season. Among the aims of the festival are to expressed their thanks to the spirits of the padi and to request the spirits to give a better harvest during the next planting season. Officially, the festival falls on June 1. It is a public holiday. But traditional celebration with rituals to expressed their thank to the spirits of the padi with offerings is held on difference dates ranges from the end of May to July, in the various villages. Each traditional celebration lasts for three days and three nights.

At present there are only a few villages still carrying on with the traditional celebration, while the younger generations celebrate the festival on June 1, in a modern way, with open house for relatives and friends from various races. It is in fact becoming a typical Malaysian festival with multi-racial favour.

Celebrations also take place in the cities. For example in Kuching a "Ngiring Kenyalang" will be held. This local Mardi Gras-style parade weaves its way around the streets of Kuching with members of Sarawak's different ethnic groups dressed in full traditional costume. Cultural and musical performances will also be held around the city.
gaun Gaun is happy.
gapang Gapang is worry. For example: "Manyah gapang" is don't worry.
giruga Giruga is a place messed up (messy).
guguh Guguh is surprise.
guruh Guruh is to sit.

iju
Iju is an apparatus (contraption) for trapping fish.
ingan
(Bau Jagoi)
Ingan is a polite way to address somebody who is older than you.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

The Biatah address the elders as "Angan".

inuh
Inuh stands for is.

jemut Jemut is a rag.
jera Jera is a friend. Thus, "Jera dayung" refers to a girlfriend. "Berjera" is to make friend or befriend. "Jera" is an alternative word to "Dingan".
jepo Jepo is a shirt. Biatah Penrissen called shirt as "Skinang".
jepuh (1) Jepuh refers to a tooth.
jepuh (2) Jepuh refers to a snake.
jeta Jeta is ours.
jewa Jewa is light or day or bright. For exampe: "Anu Jewa" is daylight while "Prita Ati Jewa" refers to this lamp is bright.
juah Juah is a big rattan basket, cylindrical in shape. A small rattan basket is called a "Tambok".
jukat Jukat is old. For example: "Jukat Jemut" is an old rag.

kadi Kadi is to remove.
kadis Kadis refers to grasshoppers
kebus Kebus is dead.
kejit Kejit is ear.
kena Kena is good.
keren Keren is to show.
keris Keris is to see or saw.
kerum Kerum is dark. It is also the root word for "Sengarum", meaning tonight.
kesong Kesong is a dog.
kirin
(Bau Jagoi)

Kirin- see. "Oku kirin muu" is I see you.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

See is called "kiris" in Biatah. In Bukar Sadong, see or look is called "tabuk".
kudip Kudip is rear/raise or earn. For example: "Kudip siok" is to rear chicken. "Kudip adup" to earn a living for one self.
kujet Kujet is pinch. "Kujet kejit" to is pinch an ear.
kudos Kudos is a generic name for vegetables. However, it can also refers to dishes. For example: "Purun Kudos" is to plant vegetables while "Kudos Eken" refers to fish dishes.
kuka Kuka is to open.
kupak Kupak is to peel. For example: "Kupak Umbung" is to peel a bamboo shoot.
kusi Kusi is a key.

madin Madin is now.
mamuh Mamuh is to take shower or bath.
man Man is to eat. "Man" is also the root word for "Pinguman" which stands for food.
mani Mani is why. "Mani" is also called as "Mai" in Biatah Penrissen.
manyah Manyah is do not. "Manyah Man" is don't eat.
manuk Manuk is a generic name for bird.
medud Medud is cold. For example: "Pi-in medud" is cold water. Hot is peras
mekat Mekat is to rise.
mekebur Mekebur is to fly or flying.
menam Menam is pain. It is also the root word for "Branam" which stands for ill or sick.
merot Merot is to go in.
meting Meting is don't have. For example: "Meting Pi-in" stands for no water.
mijog Mijog is to stand.
minea
(Bau Jagoi)

Minea is a task of planting padi seed in a nusery.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

minyu Minyu is speak. For example: "Minyu Biatah" is to speak in Biatah.
miris Miris is to buy or purchase.
moot
(Bau Jagoi)
Moot is rubber tapping. One of the most common way of living during the olden days beside doing some gardening.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin
mudas Mudas is sweating. Sweat is called "Udas".
mukud Mukud refers to coughing.
muh Muh is done. For example: "Muh Minyu" is have spoken.

nai Nai refers to make or prepare or build. As such "Nai apui" is to make fire but "Nai pi-in" is actually preparing a drink.
ningga
(Bau Jagoi)
Ningga to see/look or to watch. "Oku suka ningga muu" means I like to look at you. "Ningga TV" is to watch TV.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

The Biatah called see/look as "Tingga".
ngabang Ngabang is a "open" house visiting during the Gawai as well as any other festival.
ngapuh Ngapuh is simply. For example: "Ngapuh Nai" is simply do. "Ngapuh Suba" is simply try.
ngiduong
(Bau Jagoi)
Ngiduong is to stare
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin
ngokang
(Bau Jagoi)
Ngokang refers to hunting.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

Biatah called hunting as "Ngasu".

ngudung Ngudung refers to a meeting or a conference.
ngutuom
(Bau Jagoi)
Ngutuom refers to harvesting (of padi) using a specially made knife(tuwei).
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

The Biatah called this process "Ngutum".
nisod
(Bau Jagoi)
Nisod is submerge.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

The Biatah called submerge or sinking as "Tegerum".
nok Nok refers to drinking. For example: "Nok pi-in" is drinking water.

The Bau Jagoi called drinking as "Nuok".
nuris Nuris is to write or compose.
nyamba Nyamba refers to old folks or matured.
nyireeng Nyireeng refers to peeping or to peep.

pede Pede is salty.
penu Penu is to walk or to make a move.
peras Peras is hot.
pi-in Pi-in refers to water.
pinjan Pinjan refers to a window.
pingirih
(Bau Jagoi)
Pingirih is helping each other (mostly on a rotation basis or return helping). Usually done during padi planting or harvesting season. This tradition is still practise among the Bidayuh community this day.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

The Biatah called this as "mengeris".
pira Pira is a baby.
pisa Pisa is a species of bamboo mainly used as a vegetable stand. See also "Apuk", "Buruh" and "Tering".
prita Prita refers to lamp or lighting.
puno Puno is full.
purok Purok is short. Amu, pronounced "a-moo" is long.
purug
(Bau Jagoi)
Purug is a process after 'minea' that is transferring the young paddy into the paddy field.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin

The Biatah called this process "Purun Pedi".

purun Purun refers to planting. For example: "Purun rada" is to plant pepper vines.

rais Rais refers to a state or a country. A village proper can also be consider as a Rais.
ramin Ramin is a house in Biatah.

Bau Jagoi referred a house as a "Bori/Boli".
rada Rada is pepper (Piper Nigrum L) . For example: "Rada buda" refers to white pepper. The green, immature fruits of the pepper vine are harvested and dried, turning black upon drying. White pepper is obtained by letting the "berries" turn red (ripen) and then removing the outer husk, leaving the straw-colored "kernel". It is milder than black pepper.
rawang Rawang refers to a family.
raut Raut refers to a sea or ocean.
rebur Rebur is destroyed or damaged.
reda Reda refers to awake or realised.
re-e Re-e refers to ginger. Scientific Name: Zingiber officinale . The plant's rhizome (stem that grows at ground level like iris) is used fresh as well as dried and ground. It is a common ingredient in Asian cooking and flavors ginger snaps, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger cake and pumpkin pie.
reset Reset is a local fruit or langsat in Bahasa Malaysia. Scientific Name : Lansium domesticum jack.
ruang Ruang is seed. For example: "Ruang Kudos" is vegetable seeds.
rupas Rupas is to free. Rupas can also means quitting from a job.
ruah Ruah means to go out. For example: "Ruah so arun" is out from home or not at home. Alternative sentence for "Ruah so arun" is "Meting so arun".

sebak Sebak is air or wind.
sekeduh Sekeduh/bekeduh is to run or running.
serpak Serpak is a bottle. Biatah Penrissen called bottle as "Jebur".
sewan Sewan refers to marriage or married.
siok (shiok) Siok (shiok)is chicken. "Babang Siok" refers to a rooster.

Biatah Penrissen called chicken a "siap".
sikuk Sikuk refers to mangosteen fruit. Scientific Name : Garcinia mangostana Linn. The mangosteen is an evergreen tree about 10 to 25m tall with a dense pyramidal crown. The fruits produced are apomictic. The fruit is about 6 to 7cm in diameter, round but slightly flattened at the ends. It has a smooth thick, firm rind, pale green when immature and turning dark purple or red-purple when ripe. Enclosed by the rind is the edible pulp in 4 - 8 white segments. The flavour is slightly acidic but sweet and delicious. Each fruit has 1 to 2 seeds. [ picture | more ]
sinda Sinda is a knife.
siyang Siyang (sinjang) is a pant or trousers.
so So refers to from. "So" is to be pronounced like "Sou" or "Sou..x"
sumuk Sumuk is a grandmother. A short name for a grandmother is ofcoure "Muk". For example: "Muk Redan" means the old lady is a grandmother of Redan. If the old lady have many grandchildren, her shortname would be derived from the title "Muk" and the name of the eldest grandchildren.
sungi Sungi refers to a river.
sura Sura can be a sun or a sunny day.

tapan Tapan is a winnowing rattan pan used for winnowing padi.
tapau Tapau is a minor flooding or overflow. Big flood refers to "Uba baas".
tambok Tambok is a small rattan basket, cylindrical in shape. A big rattan basket is called a "Juah"
taruh Taruh refers to number three (3).
teban Teban is to bring.
temi Temi is a foreigner or a visitor. "Di-nemi" is to visit (usually to far away places).
tema Tema is to touch.
tenuk Tenuk is to cook or boil. For example: "Tenuk Tubi" is to cook rice while "Tenuk Pi-in" is to boil water.
teris Teris is a rope.
teru Teru is scared or afraid or frighten.
tering Tering is a species of gaint bamboo mainly used as construction and weaving and a source of food. Scientific Name : Dendrocalamus giganteus. See also "Apuk", "Buruh" and "Pisa". [ picture ]
tewan Tewan refers to a wound or being wounded.
teya Teya is a farm, garden or an orchard.
teyung Teyung is a great grandmother.
tiban Tiban is a door.
tibayan Tibayan is a form of makeshift bridge or platform for crossing small stream or muddy path.
tidu
(Bau Jagoi)

Tidu- to watch object from above. To look down.
Courtesy of Mr. George Martin
tikiyung Tikiyung is a generic name for snail.
tinga Tinga is to see or look or meet. For example: "Tinga wayang" is to see a movie while "Tinga Doktor" is to meet with a doctor.

See "dapud" that stands for meet.
tubi Tubi is rice.
tuak Bidayuh rice wine usually consumed during the Gawai festival.
tuwas Tuwas refers to angry.

uba Uba refers to flood. For example: "Pi-in Uba" is flood water.
ubak Ubak refers to head. For example: "Ubak baga" is big head. A leader is called as "Pegubak"
ubok Ubok refers to hair. For example: "Ubok buda" is white hair.
udas Udas refers to sweat. Sweating is called "Mudas"
ujen Ujen refers to rain or raining. For example: "Pi-in ujen" is rain water whereas "Anu ujen" is raining or a rainy day.
umot Umot is a ghost.
uwee Uwee refers to rattan. Scientific Name : Calamus spp., Daemonorops spp.

Native to Asia, rattan is the collective name for the climbing palms. They are rope-like, woody climbing plants that can grow to 600 feet long and diameters between 1/8 of an inch to more than 2 inches. After being collected from the forest the stems are boiled in oil and scoured in sand or sawdust to remove their natural gums and resins. The outer skins are removed and used to weave furniture, baskets, screens, and chair seats. The inner core is use for making baskets. Rattan is presently the largest source used in the fabrication of wicker furniture. Within the family of rattan, there are several hundred varieties. The harvesting of rattan occurs between 7 to 15 years from the start of the new growth.
uwang Uwang refers to firewood.

2 comments:

gwestella said...

this entry attracts me.
Im very fond of Bidayuh community maybe because I mix with them too much during my 5 years in Kuching..but being in the community is really nice when you gets to know, understand and speak their languages..

i can see the words display here are mostly tungak ke Bau didin.. :)
No Bidayuh Serian words to display?

ndie amoLdo said...

very like it...